School of Thought | Intellectual Framework

Platonism: The Evolution of Plato’s Theory of Forms

Platonism is the intellectual tradition inspired by Plato’s philosophy, centered in the Theory of Forms, but denoting its adaptation and integration into various cultural, theological and intellectual paradigms over the course of over two and a half millennia, thereby demonstrating the intellectual appeal, if not the enduring relevance, of Platonic thought.

School of Thought | Intellectual Framework


Sophism, commonly associated with epistemic and moral relativism, is an umbrella term to designate the intellectual framework of the wondering instructors who taught the art of rhetoric – that is, argumentation and persuasion – in ancient Greece during the 5th century BCE.

Western Philosophy | Ancient Philosophy

[Full Text] Xenophon’s Symposium

The Symposium by Xenophon Translated by H.G. Dakyns Xenophon’s Symposium is a lighthearted conversation among friends at a banquet, featuring Socrates. It is one of a few, three to be precise, extant writings by Xenophon dedicated to preserving the memory of Socrates, along with the Memorabilia and Apology. The intent of The Symposium, according to…

Western Philosophy | Ancient Philosophy

[Full Text] Xenophon’s Memorabilia | Book IV

The Memorable Thoughts of Socrates by Xenophon Translated by Eduard Bysshe Book IV Xenophon (c. 430 – 354 BCE), a Greek historian, philosopher and soldier, was a student of Socrates and contemporary of Plato. His “Memorabilia” defends Socrates’ moral teachings, countering misconceptions. This work offers a unique perspective on Socrates and Socratic philosophy, and its…